Technical publications

Technical articles

July 20, 2022

Pushing the Limits of Wind Loading on Macro Sites

As the appetite for data continues to grow, wireless providers need to deploy more and more base station antennas to keep pace and deliver the required capacity. With 5G roll outs gathering momentum, we are seeing existing cell sites pushed to their loadbearing limit, but more is still needed. Du...
June 29, 2022

Building a converged oil and gas field automation network

To overcome immense challenges, oil and gas companies are embracing Industry 4.0. They transform by seizing digital technology advancements and adopting an automation paradigm. Foundational to this transformation is a converged communications and field automation network (FAN). This white paper e...
March 15, 2022

Tackling Indoor 5G Coverage

Operators are picking up serious momentum when it comes to 5G roll outs. As of December 2021, 487 operators in 145 countries or territories had invested in 5G mobile or fixed wireless networks with 200 of these having launched some level of 5G network coverage. However, there is still a long road...
March 18, 2021

A Dual-Band Answer to the Challenges of 5G Backhaul

The vision and market value of 5G is absolutely contingent on having the right infrastructure in place to support it. Reliable backhaul is an absolutely critical part of that solid infrastructure and so one of the big challenges that operators face is how to deliver robust backhaul that marries t...
May 14, 2020

RFS Booted Jumpers Accelerate Installations in Brazil

RFS booted jumpers were recently installed at a threesector cell site that provides LTE700 service in the city of Caieiras, Brazil. During the installation, the customer took the opportunity to time the jumper installations and analyze VSWR performance.
January 1, 2017

Reduce Tower Climbs, Get Ready for C-RAN and Carve the Path to 5G with CPRI Panel Solutions from RFS

RFS’ new Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) panel enables easy RF over CPRI testing at the bottom of the tower, reducing the need for unnecessary tower climbs, to minimize maintenance costs and overall OPEX for customers.
June 6, 2016

Eileen Januszkiewicz, RFS Commercial Product Manager of Cables, contributed to Microwaves & RF’s recent report, "Passive Components Punch Through Walls"

Due to their superior power-handling capability, passive components are an extremely important aspect of a high performance distributed antenna system.  Throughout the article, RFS addresses how its passive components go above and beyond when it comes to satisfying the imperative need for co...
April 21, 2016

How Future-Proof Antenna Systems Help Broadcasters in the U.S. Television Spectrum Repack

The U.S. broadcast spectrum repacking program is imminent, and challenges for broadcasters transitioning to new channel assignments are many. Nick Wymant, CTO Broadcast at RFS, delivered a presentation at NAB2016 evaluating some of those challenges and providing insightful recommendations for bro...
March 16, 2016

RFS Prepares for US DTV Repack – Are you ready?

With the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) broadcast television spectrum incentive auction process now defined, the challenges facing the North American Broadcasters to transition to new channels in the allotted timeframe are significant.
December 1, 2015

DRIVING EXPANSION across the United States.

Aviat Networks, Inc. and RFS were asked with supporting the backhaul needs for a nationwide, rural 4G LTE rollout.
July 15, 2015

Southern African Wireless Communications - On the right frequency

RFS has been developing unique wireless infrastructure solutions for over 70 years. JEAN-LOUIS HUREL explains how the company is helping network builders overcome the challenges they face.
July 15, 2015

Going underground with LTE in Hannover

Attempts to offer a 4G LTE mobile network service in tunnels remain in their infancy. However, trials with "leaky feeder" cables in Hannover have shown that it is possible to deliver reliable mobile broadband services underground, as Axel Schroeder, commercial product manager indoor sys...
April 1, 2014

Understanding Small Cell Backhaul: Challenges and Solutions

In this month’s issue of Small Cell Magazine, RFS’ Asad Zoberi explores the small cell deployment obstacles plaguing today’s mobile operators and the antenna technologies that are emerging as viable solutions for these common backhaul challenges.
June 4, 2013

Teppo Lukkarila, RFS global product line manager for base station antennas, contributed to Wireless Design & Development's recent Brainstorm topic, "What are the most effective methods to prevent RF signal interference?"

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) - the unwanted mixing of multiple signals in non-linear junctions within a system resulting in undesirable harmonic signals - is a leading cause of significant quality and performance problems at communications sites. RF interference problems arise when downlink sign...
March 16, 2011

Aluminum RF coaxial cables - a real alternative to copper

e-StayConnected - March 2011With copper reaching 10,000 USD/ton and copper security risks wordwide, RFS CELLFLEX Lite aluminum cables are a must-consider alternative to copper.
March 3, 2011

Miners quickly adopt new communications systems

Coal Age (USA) - January 2011The results of tests conducted by Hughes Supply, a leading supplier of mining communications solutions, confirm that RFS’ RADIAFLEX “leaky feeder” cables are the best available in North America today.

Case studies

September 19, 2023

Streamlining fronthaul connectivity in Italy

5G may be a wireless technology, but fiber is a critical element of its infrastructure. To deliver the promises on speed and latency, 5G needs fiber and lots of it. In radio access networks, a typical cell site needs fiber connections for fronthaul, midhaul, and backhaul, and each comes with its...
June 30, 2023

Bringing 5G to Hong Kong

Hong Kong is one of the absolute world leaders when it comes to 5G coverage, with it already exceeding 90% of the population. The spectrum bands used for 5G mean operators now need to address a wide variety of frequencies, each with specific challenges that need to be overcome to ensure smooth an...
May 21, 2019

RFS and QMC bring indoor wireless coverage to the Corcovado-Paineiras Visitor Center in Brazil

Radio Frequency Systems (RFS) partnered with QMC Telecom International (QMC) to provide indoor wireless connectivity for more than 1 million people who visit Corcovado in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, every year. The popular tourist area boasts one of the 7 new world wonders: Christ the Redeemer.
February 28, 2019

Broadcast Auxiliary Service (BAS) Filter

RFS’ BAS Interference Mitigation Filter (IMF) eliminates the interference issues broadcasters face when nearby mobile operators transmit on AWS spectrum. And it ensures broadcasters won’t experience AWS interference issues in the future. The filter rejects all AWS-1 and AWS-3 spectrum...
October 4, 2018

Brazil’s Most Challenging Repacking Project Comes In Ahead of Schedule with Help from RFS

Radio Frequency Systems (RFS) partnered with EAD, the organization responsible for migrating analog TV signals to digital in Brazil, to play a key role in the success of the largest and most challenging project in the Brazilian repacking program: The Sumaré Tower project, which provides Di...
January 30, 2018

RFS Helps Cobham Wireless Improve Public Safety and Cellular Communications at the Largest High School in the USA

When Cobham Wireless decided to bring the benefits of a modern digital communications system to Evanston Township High School (ETHS) near Chicago, Illinois, the largest high school in the USA, the company turned to RFS for the cable requirements in the updated solution. HYBRIFLEX®, RFS’...
July 17, 2017

RFS Co-Location Filters Support Buildout of 4G Network

Radio Frequency Systems’ “custom” Interference Mitigation Filters accommodate operator’s specific needs and aggressive rollout targets. Learn more about the network expansion that was close to existing spectrum and the special consideration that was taken to prevent interf...
September 13, 2016

Nuclear Power Plant Tests DAS

An initial test of a distributed antenna system (DAS) shows promise for addressing nuclear power plant coverage challenges. Nuclear power plants need reliable wireless communication systems for efficient management and maintenance, but their complex, super-reinforced concrete construction makes i...
June 20, 2015

Radio Frequency Systems (RFS) and Green Mountain Overhaul New Hampshire’s Broadband Network

Mountainous State Brings Wireless Network Up to Speed
October 21, 2013

Radio Frequency Systems (RFS), Transit Wireless and SOLiD Bring Wireless Service to New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) Riders

Massive endeavor will bring wireless voice and data communications capabilities to 277 New York subway stations by 2018.
June 7, 2012

RFS RADIAFLEX® Radiating Cable Helps Provide Seamless Wireless Connectivity to Millions of Boston’s MBTA Subway Riders

One of the primary challenges in designing a solution to offer comprehensive wireless access within the Bostonsubway system was addressing the city’s highly complex system of underground and underwater tunnels.RFS RADIAFLEX® radiating cable was the key to achieving unparalleled technica...

White papers

July 20, 2022

Pushing the Limits of Wind Loading on Macro Sites

As the appetite for data continues to grow, wireless providers need to deploy more and more base station antennas to keep pace and deliver the required capacity. With 5G roll outs gathering momentum, we are seeing existing cell sites pushed to their loadbearing limit, but more is still needed. Due to the cost and logistical challenges, acquiring new sites is often not a practical option, meaning equipment designers need to push to extend the wind loading limits to ease the problem.
May 30, 2022

Mining and mission-critical wireless connectivity

Laying the foundation for the digital transformation of mining
March 11, 2022

Tackling Indoor 5G Coverage

Earlier this year, we expanded our HYBRIFLEX portfolio to support DRS, Small Cell and Active DAS for in-building and across campus deployments. Read our latest whitepaper for a more detailed look at how we’re helping our customers address 5G challenges.
January 3, 2022

Making higher education institutions smarter with private wireless

Higher education institutions are seeking to rapidly digitalize their operations so they can better serve the changing needs of students, academic staff and researchers on their campuses. To succeed, they must evolve their wireless communications infrastructure to offer higher-performing applications and tools that will help their staff and students work more productively. Until now, their main approach has been to upgrade or replace existing Wi-Fi networks, but Wi-Fi technology is starting to show limitations in its ability to meet the increased demands of mobility, latency, throughput and total cost of ownership (TCO).
May 22, 2021

Creating the connected digital mine

Nokia and RFS provide critical communications solutions for making mine operations safer, more productive and efficient
May 22, 2021

Railways: Leading the way to 5G

As we enter the era of 5G, rail operators now have a game-changing opportunity to modernize aging railway infrastructures, creating new applications, revenue streams and operating models based on mobile broadband capabilities.
May 21, 2021

A New Platform for Rail Communications

5G offers a major opportunity for rail operators to transform their operations for the better. Its high speed and extreme traffic handling capacity, together with ultra-low response times, highest reliability and support for massive machine type communication (IoT), will allow rail networks to improve safety, optimize costs and make their services more attractive to passengers in many ways. Such capabilities will make the telecommunication network the cornerstone of railways’ ambitions for further digitization.
March 30, 2021

Private wireless communications for underground mines

The automation of critical processes is vital for mining companies seeking to increase operational efficiency and productivity while improving worker safety. To enable the automation applications that will deliver these results, mining companies need pervasive and dependable wireless connectivity above ground and underground. Reliable critical communications is the foundation for mine digitalization, automation and autonomous operation.
March 17, 2021

A Dual-Band Answer to the Challenges of 5G Backhaul

The vision and market value of 5G is absolutely contingent on having the right infrastructure in place to support it. Reliable backhaul is an absolutely critical part of that solid infrastructure and so one of the big challenges that operators face is how to deliver robust backhaul that marries the capacity, coverage and reliability to let 5G reach its promised potential.
January 3, 2021

Digitalizing the oil & gas value chain

Take a look at critical communications solutions that transform E&P operations and fuel the energy transition.
March 10, 2018

RFS Variable Polarization Technology

The North American model for broadcasting had traditionally been one in which individual stations own their own tower, transmitter and antenna. A recent trend has been the use of shared sites and shared antennas, allowing broadcasters to reduce infrastructure and operational costs.
February 21, 2018

Simplify The Evolution to 5G Networks with Active-Passive Antennas (APA)

The 5G world is almost upon us and with it will come new applications such as virtual reality, augmented reality, self-driving cars, digital healthcare, robotics, and massive use of the Internet of Things (IoT), all of which will affect our daily lives. However, to achieve these capabilities, there are still numerous technical and economic challenges facing the industry that must be solved.
November 24, 2017

RFS Co-Location Filters Support Buildout of 4G Network

In 2016, with the demand for reliable 4G service growing across Pakistan’s major cities, a Tier 1 global operator won 10 MHz in the country’s 850 MHz spectrum auction.
May 23, 2017

The Story Of The Build By The Team That Did It

When the World Trade Center towers fell, the RF transmission systems of 13 New York City area television stations were destroyed.
June 3, 2016

The Effect of Low Quality Antennas on Network Backhaul

This paper describes the effects of numerous quality variables on the performance of a microwave antenna, and provides insight into the long-term consequences of using a low-cost/ poor quality antenna.
May 3, 2016

Know Your Options: Future-Proof Antennas for the US Repack

As the North America broadcast market embarks on the spectrum repack later in 2016 there are many decisions to be made. One of those is antenna technology selection.
March 3, 2016

RFS Prepares for US DTV Repack – Are you ready?

With the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) broadcast television spectrum incentive auction process now defined, the challenges facing the North American Broadcasters to transition to new channels in the allotted timeframe are significant.
January 3, 2016

Technical Analysis: Flexible Feed Design

This RFS White Paper highlights RFS’ “flexible feed” architecture of its CompactLine® and CompactLine® Easy antennas.
January 3, 2015

Beamforming vs. MIMO antennas

RFS’ white paper discusses the architectural differences between an antenna that has been designed for MIMO performance and one that has been optimized for beamforming. It will explain why antenna characteristics that are desirable for MIMO will result in a degradation of the beamforming ability of the antenna.
March 3, 2014

Overcoming the Challenges of 4G LTE and MIMO for In-Tunnel Wireless Connectivity

The purpose of this white paper is to review the design challenges for in-tunnel LTE applications and to analyze the key performance indicators. The document summarizes the results of a comprehensive measurement campaign focusing on in-tunnel LTE performance based on RFS RADIAFLEX® radiating cables.
January 3, 2014

Understanding Small Cell Blackhaul : challenges and solutions

This article will explore the need for small cell backhaul and the challenges faced by mobile operators, as well as look at the viable technology options that are emerging to enable sites that are aesthetically pleasing without sacrificing performance or becoming cost-prohibitive.
February 3, 2011

Polarization Diversity - Variable Polarization Technology and the Mobile Broadcasting Environment

This paper will focus the unique RF characteristics of the mobile environment and what is needed to support effective and robust transmission to this. In particular, polarization diversity will be explored and options on how to obtain polarization diversity from a transmission system standard will be discussed. The focus will be on broadband master arrays that are both financially rational and future-proof.
October 3, 2009

A Primer on Passive Intermodulation (PIM)

In this document we will cover several topics related to PIM, including a basic definition of PIM, the effect on a system, measurement techniques, real world causes, and methods of mitigation.
July 3, 2009

Microwave Backhaul, the conundrum that is African wireless

Despite what some wireless infrastructure suppliers would have the industry believe, Africa is a very different marketplace for wireless communications architectures to the rest of the world. Incredibly varied terrains and network topologies across the continent, coupled with extremes of temperature, and the steady but extremely protracted decommissioning of legacy 2G, and even 3G cell sites, all conspire to make wireless network installation and management in Africa an unusually complex and demanding task.
July 3, 2009

Field Insertion Loss (Attenuation) Measurement

The purpose of the white paper is to review the different methods of measuring insertion loss in coaxial cable and discuss the uncertainty associated with the measurements.
April 3, 2009

Overlay strategies for 700 MHz LTE deployments

Implementation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) at 700 MHz in North America calls for a cost-effective and rapid rollout. LTE provides wireless carriers with a common next generation (4G) platform and delivers much higher data rates. Deploying this technology in the 700MHz band allows for more efficient RF propagation and greater structural penetration. However, there are also issues with 700 MHz associated with a multitude of interference scenarios.
February 3, 2008

TMA Usage in CDMA Networks

Escalating consumer dependence on wireless data networks is placing growing pressure on existing CDMA wireless infrastructure. This is highlighting the role of tower-mount amplifiers as an economical solution for improving BTS receiver sensitivity - thus improving overall network performance and network revenue.
September 3, 2006

AWS auctions spawn spectrum shuffle

As the FCC re-allocates microwave backhaul spectrum for 3G advanced wireless services, incumbent carriers needing to relocate will seek out flexible backhaul solutions that can be deployed quickly.
March 3, 2005

Triple-mode ceramic the key in ultra-compact filter research

With the deployment of ‘micro’ base stations and the co-location of multiple cellular services, the challenge is on to fit more and more equipment into a shrinking amount of space. One component that can occupy a significant fraction of base station volume is the RF bandpass filter, increasingly introduced to control interference and improve quality of service
April 3, 2001

Dual-band in-building wireless networks

Industrial maintenance and safety needs often require multiple communications systems. Getting them to co-exist on one network doesn't have to be costly.
February 3, 2001

Using Continuously Adjustable Electrical Down-Tilt (CAEDT) Antennas To Optimize Wireless Networks

This paper will address why operators need CAEDT antennas, the benefits that these antennas provide and their ability to solve wireless system problems
June 3, 1998

A Comparison of Space Diversity and Polarization Diversity Receive Systems for Cellular and PCS

A discussion of advantages and disadvantages of using polarization diversity antennas in cellular and PCS systems